Band gap grading of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells can be achieved by varying the Sr = [S]/([S] + [Se]) ratio in the absorber layer with depth. One approach is a two-step annealing process where the absorber is first sulfurized to Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) followed by selenization to form CZTSSe. However, once nucleation of CZTSSe initiates, the rapid interchange of S and Se limits the control over the Sr ratio with depth. Here, we have studied incorporation of Se into CZTS and observed the behavior of Se below and up to the nucleation temperature of CZTSSe. Se diffusion at 337 and 360 °C is dominated by grain boundary diffusion while some increase of Se is also seen in the region from 100 to 800 nm from the surface. After selenization at 409 °C, recrystallization is observed and CZTSSe grains are formed. The recrystallization is more rapid for a smaller average grain size and is facilitated by diffusion of Na from the back contact. The grain boundary diffusion is identified with secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements by measuring the accumulation in the CZTS/Mo interface for three samples with different average grain size.
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