Structural studies show that enzymes have a limited number of unique folds, although structurally related enzymes have evolved to perform a large variety of functions. In this review, we have focused on enzymes containing the low molecular weight thioredoxin reductase (low Mr TrxR) fold. This fold consists of two domains, both containing a three-layer ββα sandwich Rossmann-like fold, serving as flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and, in most cases, pyridine nucleotide (NAD(P)H) binding-domains. Based on a search of the Protein Data Bank for all published structures containing the low Mr TrxR-like fold, we here present a comprehensive overview of enzymes with this structural architecture. These range from TrxR-like ferredoxin/flavodoxin NAD(P)+ oxidoreductases, through glutathione reductase, to NADH peroxidase. Some enzymes are solely composed of the low Mr TrxR-like fold, while others contain one or two additional domains. In this review, we give a detailed description of selected enzymes containing only the low Mr TrxR-like fold, however, catalyzing a diversity of chemical reactions. Our overview of this structurally similar, yet functionally distinct group of flavoprotein oxidoreductases highlights the fascinating and increasing number of studies describing the diversity among these enzymes, especially during the last decade(s).
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