This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides a rationale for the Action, outlines the theoretical framework for its work, and offers an overview of the activities undertaken by its various working groups. It reviews key issues in the methodologies employed to investigate young children’s digital literacy practices around the globe, and focuses on interpretive and innovative methodologies. The book also focuses on ethics and researching young children’s online and offline digital literacy practices. It examines evidence regarding young children’s digital literacy practices around the world and identifies such research as exists, including from East Asia and the Global South. The book considers young children’s informal reading, writing and meaning making with digital texts alongside more conventional literacy media, such as printed resources, both at home and in community spaces.