Xylopsora canopeorum Timdal, Reese Næsborg & Bendiksby is described as a new species occupying the crowns of large Sequoia sempervirens trees in California, USA. The new species is supported by morphology, anatomy, secondary chemistry and DNA sequence data. While similar in external appearance to X. friesii, it is distinguished by forming smaller, partly coralloid squamules, by the occurrence of soralia and, in some specimens, by the presence of thamnolic acid in addition to friesiic acid in the thallus. Molecular phylogenetic results are based on nuclear (ITS and LSU) as well as mitochondrial (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequence alignments. Phylogenetic hypotheses obtained using Bayesian Inference, Maximum Likelihood and Maximum Parsimony all support X. canopeorum as a distinct evolutionary lineage belonging to the X. caradocensis–X. friesii clade.
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