Objective We have previously found that 9% of patients treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse in a primary care emergency outpatient setting presented with a new poisoning within a week. We now identify factors associated with rapidly repeated acute poisoning by substances of abuse. Results In 169/1952 (9%) cases of acute poisoning by substances of abuse included consecutively from October 2011 through September 2012 at a primary care emergency outpatient clinic in Oslo, Norway, the patient re-presented within a week with a new poisoning. Homeless patients were more likely to re-present, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–3.2, p = 0.003), as were self-discharging patients, AOR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4, p = 0.007), and patients with an opioid as main toxic agent, AOR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.3, p = 0.028). There was no statistically significant association between rapid re-presentation and severe mental illness or suicidal intention.
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