Several novel oxygenated polyunsaturated lipid mediators biosynthesized from n-3 docosapentaenoic acid were recently isolated from murine inflammatory exudates and human primary cells. These compounds belong to a distinct family of specialized pro-resolving mediators, and display potent in vivo anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution effects. The endogenously formed specialized pro-resolving mediators have attracted a great interest as lead compounds in drug discovery programs towards the development of new classes of drugs that dampen inflammation without interfering with the immune response. Detailed information on the chemical structures, cellular functions and distinct biosynthetic pathways of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators is a central aspect of these biological actions. Herein, the isolation, structural elucidation, biosynthetic pathways, total synthesis and bioactions of the n-3 docosapentaenoic acid derived mediators PD1n-3 DPA and MaR1n-3 DPA are discussed. In addition, a brief discussion of a novel family of mediators derived from n-3 docosapentaenoic acid, termed 13-series resolvins is included.
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