Opioid overdoses and overdose prevention: The establishment of take-home naloxone in Norway
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AbstractNaloxone is the antidote to an opioid overdose, and has long been used by health personnel to reverse overdoses. More recently, non-medical bystanders have also been equipped to recognize and respond to an overdose with naloxone. In 2014 the National Overdose Prevention Strategy included the provision of naloxone to bystanders, becoming one of the first government-supported naloxone programs. The aims of this thesis were to describe characteristics of opioid overdoses occurring in Bergen, Norway, and to evaluate the introduction and implementation of a widespread take-home naloxone program in Norway. This was done using ambulance records, a pre-test post-test analysis, and questionnaires from participants trained to use naloxone. Participants were mostly opioid users, and nearly all had previously witnessed or experienced an overdose. Distribution goals were met within the first 18 months, demonstrating that that the use multiple existing facilities achieved rapid, high volume distribution of naloxone to an at-risk group. Together the findings support the appropriateness and feasibility of implementing a widespread naloxone distribution program.
List of papers
|I. Madah-Amiri D, Clausen T, Myrmel L, Brattebø G, Lobmaier P. Circumstances surrounding nonfatal opioid overdoses attended by ambulance services. Drug and Alcohol Review. 2016;36(3):288-294. The article is included in the thesis. Also available in DUO: http://hdl.handle.net/10852/59037|
|II. Madah-Amiri D, Clausen T, Lobmaier P. Utilizing a train-the-trainer model for multi-site naloxone distribution programs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2016;163.153-156. The article is included in the thesis. Also available in DUO: http://hdl.handle.net/10852/59038|
|III. Madah-Amiri D, Clausen T, Lobmaier P. Rapid widespread distribution of intranasal naloxone. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2017;173:17-23. The article is included in the thesis. Also available in DUO: http://hdl.handle.net/10852/59039|