The earliest evidence of humans using herbs or plants for therapeutic purposes comes from the Neanderthals (Herbs2000.com 2011, Neanderthal 2011). Over 50,000 years ago, the Neanderthals would use herbs and natural substances to kill the bacteria in wounds (Herbs2000.com 2011).During ancient times more than 3,000 years ago, the Egyptians, the Chinese, and Indians of Central America would use herbs or certain organisms like molds to stop the growth of harmful bacteria (Experiment-resources 2011). It was then that the discovery was made that molds could treat infections. This was the birth of antibiotics. However, at that time they did not understand how the mold could cure infections (Experiment-resources 2011). Later on, scientists began to search for drugs that would kill the infection-causing bacteria (Experiment-resources 2011). In 1899, the two German physicians Rudolf Emmerich and Oscar Low, were the first to make a medication from microbes. This was the first antibiotic to be used in hospitals (What Is The History Of Antibiotics? 2011).From the early twentieth century, the scientists have discovered and developed many new antibiotics (Herbs2000.com). In 1929, the Scottish pharmacologist Sir Alexander Fleming discovered that molds have very good antibacterial properties. He named the mold Penicillium, and the chemical produced by the mold was named penicillin (Herbs2000.com 2011, Experiment-resources 2011). In 1935, the German pathologist and bacteriologist Gerhard Domagk discovered synthetic antimicrobial chemicals, which he called sulfonamides. During 1940’s and 50’s streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol were discovered (Herbs2000.com 2011).Since the first discovery of penicillins, antibiotics have attracted much clinical and pharmacological research, in response to the progressive challenges posted by bacterial infections; identification of new pathogens, the development of resistances to antibiotics, and the discovery of new diseases. Bacterial infections are common in dental practice, and antibiotics have therefore been used extensively in dentistry for the management of orofacial infections (Ellison 2009).