The aim of this thesis was to contribute to the field of positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) in benign and malignant diseases of the thyroid gland. The primary method used was review of retrospectively or prospectively enrolled patients referred for FDG PET at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. PET findings were compared with the results of all other imaging, laboratory results and clinical information, as well as, extensive recording of follow-up information for up to 92 months.
We found that an incidental finding of diffusely increased FDG uptake in the thyroid gland was associated with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Regardless of the intensity of the FDG-uptake (SUV), an incidental finding of a focally increased FDG uptake in the thyroid gland represented a malignant tumor in about 1/3 of the patients.
We found that FDG PET had a high prognostic value in patients with different forms of thyroid cancer. Furthermore, our findings indicate that FDG PET may improve disease detection and have an important impact on the management of patients with aggressive thyroid cancer.
LIST OF PAPERS (articles 1, 2, 3 and 5 are removed due to copyright restrictions)
I. Karantanis D, Bogsrud TV, Wiseman GA, Mullan BP, Subramaniam RM, Nathan MA, Peller PJ, Bahn RS, Lowe VJ. Clinical Significance of Diffusely Increased 18FFDG Uptake in the Thyroid Gland. J Nucl Med 2007; 48: 896-901. DOI: 10.2967/jnumed.106.039024
II. Bogsrud TV, Karantanis D, Nathan MA, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Collins DA, Kasperbauer JL, Strome SE, Reading CC, Hay ID, Lowe VJ. The value of quantifying 18F-FDG uptake in thyroid nodules found incidentally on whole-body PET/CT. Nucl Med Commun 2007; 28: 373-381. DOI: 10.1097/MNM.0b013e3280964eae
III. Bogsrud TV, Hay ID, Karantanis D, Nathan MA, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Kasperbauer JL, Reading CC, Bjøro T, Lowe VJ. Prognostic Value of 18FFluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma and Circulating Antihyroglobulin Autoantibodies. Nucl Med Commun 2011 (in press). Nuclear Medicine Communications: April 2011 - Volume 32 - Issue 4 - p 245–251 DOI: 10.1097/MNM.0b013e328343a742
IV. Bogsrud TV, Karantanis D, Nathan MA, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Kasperbauer JL, Reading CC, Hay ID, Lowe VJ. 18F-FDG PET in the Management of Patients with Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma. Thyroid 2008; 18: 713-719. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2007.0350
V. Bogsrud TV, Karantanis D, Nathan MA, Mullan BP, Wiseman GA, Kasperbauer JL, Reading CC, Bjøro T, Hay ID, Lowe VJ. The Prognostic Value of 2-Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Suspected Residual or Recurrent Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Mol Imaging Biol 2010; 12: 547-553. DOI: 10.1007/s11307-009-0276-2