The brain’s capacity for cellular and synaptic change, neuroplasticity, underlies an organism’s ability to respond in an adaptive manner to changes in its environment. Recent studies findevidence of functional and structural changes in the brain following meditation practice, indicating that meditation harnesses the brain’s inherent ability to change in response to experience. An open question exists, however, of whether meditation enhances neuroplasticity. If this is the case, meditation might be employed in order to facilitate learning and flexibility. Through a literature review of current research, it is found that meditation might enhance neuroplasticity specifically through the mechanisms of relaxation and training of attention. These findings have potential practical applications in areas such as therapy, education, and age-related cognitive decline.