Regulatory gaps in the Arctic legal framework regarding vessel-source pollution: the exclusion of harmful shipping pollutants such as black carbon and noise pollution from the Polar Code, from MARPOL, and from the IMO regime – an analysis of the present legal shortcomings in protecting the Arctic environment from vessel-source pollution
In light of the environmental threats facing the Arctic, this thesis discusses and assesses the current regulatory framework of the Arctic in regards to vessel-source pollutants. It identifies legal shortcomings, such as the omission of black carbon and underwater noise regulations, from MARPOL Annex VI, from the Polar Code, and from the IMO regime. It also offers potential policy solutions in response to these regulatory gaps. Overall, this thesis aims to promote a legally proactive approach by suggesting an Environmental Annex to the Polar Certificate which encompasses all the policy solutions mentioned throughout the thesis.