Anxiety in people with dementia: A common, but unidentified and underestimated, condition
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AbstractAlthough anxiety and anxiety symptoms are common in older people with dementia, anxiety often goes unidentified by health care personnel due to overlapping symptoms with dementia and depression. A lack of validated, dementia-specific anxiety assessment scales in Norwegian could be contributing to the limited knowledge about and attention on anxiety and anxiety symptoms in people with dementia in Norway. In her thesis, Alka Rani Goyal and collaborators translated the Rating Anxiety in Dementia scale (RAID) into Norwegian (RAID-N), and investigated the validity of the RAID-N scale. Further, anxiety and anxiety symptoms were assessed with the RAID-N scores among people with dementia living in Norwegian nursing homes to describe the prevalence and the course of anxiety in dementia. About one of three nursing home residents with dementia had clinically significant anxiety (RAID-N sum score 12 and above) and anxiety symptoms both at baseline and at 12 months follow-up. Motor tension, frightened and anxiousness, irritability, and restlessness were the most prevalent symptoms of anxiety, and should encourage further assessments in people with dementia. Anxiety was associated with poor general physical health and a number of behavioral symptoms in people with dementia. Anxiety was also associated with poor quality of life over a 12-month period among these people. Severe anxiety was highly comorbid with depression. People with dementia and comorbid anxiety and depression had poorer general physical health, more behavioral symptoms and poorer quality of life than people with dementia and only anxiety, only depression, or none of these conditions. Comorbidity of anxiety and depression reduced the probability of remission of anxiety or depression in people with dementia, which is an important finding of this thesis. RAID-N could be a useful scale in the assessment of anxiety that needs adequate attention and management among people with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes.
List of papers
|Study I: Goyal, A. R., Bergh, S., Engedal, K., Kirkevold, M., & Kirkevold, Ø. (2016). Norwegian version of the rating anxiety in dementia scale (RAID-N): a validity and reliability study. Aging & Mental Health, 21(12), 1256-1261. The article is not available in DUO due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2016.1220921|
|Study II: Goyal, A. R., Bergh, S., Engedal, K., Kirkevold, M., & Kirkevold, Ø. (2017). Anxiety, anxiety symptoms, and their correlates in persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes: a cause for concern. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 43(5-6), 294-305. The article is not available in DUO due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1159/000471796|
|Study III: Goyal, A. R., Bergh, S., Engedal, K., Kirkevold, M., & Kirkevold, O. (2018). The course of anxiety in persons with dementia in Norwegian nursing homes: a 12-month follow-up study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 235, 117-123. The article is not available in DUO due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.015|
|Study IV: Goyal AR, Bergh S, Engedal K, Kirkevold M, Kirkevold Ø (2018) Trajectories of quality of life and their association with anxiety in people with dementia in nursing homes: a 12-month follow-up study. PLoS ONE, 13(9), 1-14: e0203773. The article is included in the thesis. The published version is also available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203773|