Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with many different immune cells involved in its pathogenesis, and in particular T cells as the most recognized cell type. Recently, the innate immune system has also been researched for its effect on the disease. Hence, cells of the immune system play vital roles in either ameliorating or exacerbating the disease. The genetic and environmental factors, as well as the etiology and pathogenesis are of utmost importance for the development of MS. An insight into the roles play by T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells in MS and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, will be presented. Understanding the mechanisms of action for current therapeutic modalities should help developing new therapeutic tools to treat this disease and other autoimmune diseases.
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