Since the 1990s, there has been a significant increase in Iranian women’s participation in higher education. This study aims to explore the participation of women in higher education and female participation in labor force in Iran. By adopting ‘Women’s Empowerment Framework’ of Sara Longwe (Year), the study investigates women in higher education and their prosperity in the labor market focusing on university students’ attitudes and awareness of gender equality and inequality. The empirical data of the study are obtained from a questionnaire survey on 194 students in the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in Azerbaijan province of Iran. The survey includes questions asking education attainments of the parents to know whether background factors significantly influence the enrolment of students. The analyses show that there is significant difference between male and female students in terms of parents’ education attainment. Female students in particular came from more educated parents. The most cited motivation of students’ attending specific study was their own interests with almost the same rate for both genders. There is significant difference in terms of inspiring for a well paid job between students with highly educated parents and those of parents without higher. Students were aware of the role of higher education in getting a well paid job. Also, this study found differences between male students and female students in terms of their purpose of attending higher education for a potential marriage. More male students entered the higher education for this reason than female students. The study showed that male students are more aspired to continue with further higher education compared to female students. Furthermore, students are aware of employment situation for previous graduated students as well as gender inequality in the labour market. Students are aware that there is more job opportunity for men in the job market for previous graduated students. The study shows that there is a consciousness among two genders in terms of gender inequality in the labour market.