Clusters of water molecules mimic the transition from gas phase to bulk water. Cluster species of the desired sizes can be selected using mass spectrometric techniques and their size-dependent properties can thereby be measured. The properties of small ionic clusters are of particular relevance to atmospheric science, providing insights into nucleation phenomena.
This work is dedicated to the investigation of properties of selected ionic molecular clusters and their gas phase reactions with heavy water or ammonia, with a strong emphasis on proton transfer phenomena. This has been achieved both experimentally in cluster beam experiments and by quantum chemical calculations.
Both in the abundance spectra and the evaporation patterns of the investigated aqueous clusters “magic numbers” discontinuities in otherwise smoothly varying distributions were observed, and are discussed. To further examine a marked difference in the observed “magic-number” behaviour of H+(pyridine)1(H2O)n and H+(NH3)1(pyridine)1(H2O)n clusters, quantum chemical calculations have been employed. Next, relative reaction cross sections were measured for cluster ions reacting with D2O and with NH3 in the collision cell. Analysis of the results for the reaction H+(pyridine)1(H2O)n + NH3 allowed us to improve a kinetic model of the atmospheric positive ion composition.
Upon reaction of a cluster with D2O a short-lived reaction intermediate is formed, which is followed by subsequent loss of D2O, HDO or H2O. The reaction channel leading to the loss of HDO requires proton mobility within the cluster, involving O–H-bond activation. The loss of HDO was not observed for protonated water clusters containing one pyridine molecule, a consequence of the immobilizing effect on the extra proton by the nitrogen base site. Similarly, the rates of protium/deuterium exchange for water clusters containing alkali metal ions are consistently extremely low.
However, the experiments show enhanced proton mobility in water clusters containing two or three pyridine molecules (H+(pyridine)2–3(H2O)n), in 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,2'-ethylenebipyridine containing water clusters as well as in bisulfate water clusters (HSO4‾(H2O)n). On the basis of systematic quantum chemical calculations we present consistent mechanisms for low energy water rearrangement and proton transfer along preformed "wires" of hydrogen bonds between the two distinct sites provided by these core ions in complete support of the experimental findings.
List of papers. Papers I, II, IV, V, VI and VII are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions.
M. J. Ryding, A. S. Zatula, P. U. Andersson and E. Uggerud.
Isotope exchange in reactions between D2O and size-selected ionic water clusters containing pyridine, H+(pyridine)m(H2O)n.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2011. 13(4), p. 1356-1367.
A. S. Zatula, P. U. Andersson, M. J. Ryding and E. Uggerud.
Proton mobility and stability of water clusters containing the bisulfate anion, HSO4–(H2O)n.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2011. 13(29), p. 13287-13294.
M. J. Ryding, Å. M. Jonsson, A. S. Zatula, P. U. Andersson and E. Uggerud.
Reactions of H+(pyridine)m(H2O)n and H+(NH3)1(pyridine)m(H2O)n with NH3: experiments and kinetic modelling.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2012. 12, p. 2809-2822.
doi:10.5194/acp-12-2809-2012 Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
M. J. Ryding, K. I. Ruusuvuori, P. U. Andersson, A. S. Zatula, M. J. McGrath, T. C. Kurtén, I. K. Ortega Colomer, H. Vehkamäki and E. Uggerud.
Structural Rearrangements and Magic Numbers in Reactions between Pyridine-containing Water Clusters and Ammonia.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2012. 116(20), p. 4902–4908.
M. J. Ryding, P. U. Andersson, A. S. Zatula and E. Uggerud.
Proton mobility in water clusters.
European Journal Of Mass Spectrometry, 2012. 18(2), p. 215–222.
A. S. Zatula, M. J. Ryding, P. U. Andersson, and E. Uggerud.
Proton mobility and stability of water clusters containing alkali metal ions.
International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 2012. 330-332, p. 191-199.
A. S. Zatula, M. J. Ryding, and E. Uggerud.
Concerted proton migration along short hydrogen bond wires in bipyridine/water clusters.
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2012, 14, p. 13907-13909.