This study investigates the gender stereotypes in story textbooks for primary school students in Vietnam before and after the textbook reform in 2002. The following research questions guided the research: How are females and males depicted in the story textbooks? Are their images stereotyped? Is there a significant change in the amount of gender stereotypes in the newly-renovated textbooks, compared to the previous ones? How stereotyped are the teachers? How do they react to the gender issues in the textbooks in their teaching?The research was conducted in Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The data collection methods were qualitative, involving class observation, interviews with primary school students and teachers. The data analysis methods were also qualitative, including discourse analysis and qualitative content analysis.The findings of the research indicate that both the old and the new versions of the story textbooks carry strong gender stereotypes. The textbook reform did not make any significant change in the amount of gender stereotypes in the story textbooks. Both the primary school teachers and students have stereotypical thinking. The teachers are not aware of the gender stereotypes in the textbooks and therefore do not criticize the stereotyped images of female and male characters depicted in the stories.The research recommends constructing new concepts of femininity and masculinity in the Vietnamese context. Future research is also recommended to widen the sample pool, increase the number of teacher and student informants and include interviews with policies makers and textbook reformers.