BACKGROUND: The increase of communicable and non- communicable diseases in Africa and the world today have been attributed to changes in human behaviour and lifestyles in generally susceptible individuals. Cameroonian lifestyle results in extreme risk of type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is predicted to increase extensively in sub- Saharan Africa, and predict to double in Cameroon, especially in the urban area, due to changes in human behaviour.OBJECTIVE: To provide baseline data that will contribute to the surveillance of diabetes in Cameroon and develop policies to prevent the occurrence of type 2 diabetes RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: It was a population based, cross sectional study of 1279 people. Data was collected using steps 1, 2 and 3 of the WHO STEPS instrument (Version 1.3) for NCDs and their risk factor surveillance that was adapted for the Cameroon Burden of Diabetes (CAMBoD) project with respect to local specifications. The prevalence of diabetes and lifestyle factors was assessed according to standardized methods. RESULTS: The age standardized prevalence rate of diabetes and IFG was 9.0% and 6.8%, respectively. Generally, worsening glycaemic status was associated with increasing age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Overweight and obesity emerged as a strong independent risk factor for diabetes, irrespective of the measure used. Diabetes was more common in the female than the male p<0.005). The older age groups (46-55 and 56+) had twice and thrice the risk of having diabetes, than the younger and the normal population (adjusted OR=3.1, p<0.001). Diabetes was found more in those who ate more servings of fruits and vegetables. Other lifestyles factors like physical activity and smoking was not a predictor of diabetes in this study, though revealing that smoker and those who are physically inactive has a higher risk of having diabetes.CONCLUSION: With the increasing associated lifestyle factors to diabetes mellitus in Cameroon, diabetes was found to be highly prevalent in middle and elderly Cameroonians. Our findings therefore highlight the need to adopt policies to reduce the burden of diabetes mellitus and obesity through health care services; special focus should be projected to women and special care should be taken for those who are in transition of lifestyle.