We present experiments and theory describing the transition from viscosity-stabilized flow to gravitationally unstable fingering for two-phase flow in a cubic box, filled with a synthetic porous medium. Observation is made possible by the use of our newly developed table-top 3D scanner based on optical index matching and laser-induced fluorescence, which is described in detail. In the experiment, a more dense, more viscous fluid injected at a fixed flow rate from a point source at the top of the flow cell displaces a less viscous, less dense fluid. We observe a stable invasion zone near the inlet, which increases in size with increasing flow rates, and presents initially a close to hemispherical shape. At later times, the invasion front transits to an unstable mode and a fingering flow regime. The transition occurs at a predicted critical radius, Rc, corresponding to the zero of the combined viscous and gravitational pressure gradient.
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