Abstract: Hydrogen produced from water using photocatalysts driven by sunlight is a sustainable way to overcome the intermittency issues of solar power and provide a green alternative to fossil fuels. TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst since the 1970s due to its low cost, earth abundance, and stability. There has been a wide range of research activities in order to enhance the use of TiO2 as a photocatalyst using dopants, modifying the surface, or depositing noble metals. However, the issues such as wide bandgap, high electron-hole recombination time, and a large overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) persist as a challenge. Here, we review state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical research on TiO2 based photocatalysts and identify challenges that have to be focused on to drive the field further. We conclude with a discussion of four challenges for TiO2 photocatalysts—non-standardized presentation of results, bandgap in the ultraviolet (UV) region, lack of collaboration between experimental and theoretical work, and lack of large/small scale production facilities. We also highlight the importance of combining computational modeling with experimental work to make further advances in this exciting field.
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