Recent research efforts focusing on the many mechanisms participating in the resolution of acute inflammation have uncovered a new genus of pro-resolving lipid mediators. These endogenous molecules include the lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins, collectively coined specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). SPMs are oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesized by lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases enzymes. These chemically sensitive molecules are produced in nano- to pico-gram amounts in vivo and exhibit potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving bioactions. In addition, SPMs clear bacterial infections, reduce pain and display bioactivities towards host defense, organ protection and tissue remodeling. Altogether, these bioactions and the need for synthetic SPMs for determination of absolute configuration and in vivo experiments have spurred a great interest in the synthetic and biomolecular communities. This review covers reported stereoselective total syntheses and outlines the most significant bioactions of the E-series resolvins.