Observations at millimetre wavelengths provide a valuable tool to study the small-scale dynamics in the solar chromosphere. We evaluate the physical conditions of the atmosphere in the presence of a propagating shock wave and link that to the observable signatures in mm-wavelength radiation, providing valuable insights into the underlying physics of mm-wavelength observations. A realistic numerical simulation from the three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic code Bifrost is used to interpret changes in the atmosphere caused by shock wave propagation. High-cadence (1 s) time series of brightness temperature (Tb) maps are calculated with the Advanced Radiative Transfer code at the wavelengths 1.309 mm and 1.204 mm, which represents opposite sides of spectral band 6 of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). An example of shock wave propagation is presented. The brightness temperatures show a strong shock wave signature with large variation in formation height between approximately 0.7 and 1.4 Mm. The results demonstrate that millimetre brightness temperatures efficiently track upwardly propagating shock waves in the middle chromosphere. In addition, we show that the gradient of the brightness temperature between wavelengths within ALMA band 6 can potentially be used as a diagnostics tool in understanding the small-scale dynamics at the sampled layers.
This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue ‘High-resolution wave dynamics in the lower solar atmosphere’.
This item's license is: Attribution 4.0 International