This chapter provides a brief overview of national and international large-scale assessment in Norway. Embedded in a range of assessment tools that consist of mapping tests in grades 1–4, national assessments in grades 5–9, national exams at the end of lower and upper secondary school and student surveys in grades 7–11, the international large-scale assessments (ILSAs) have a specific role. This role is described, as well as the assessment system as a whole. Norwegian results from the ILSAs are presented with a focus on long-term developments since the mid-1990s and equity as the most characteristic result regarding Norway seen from an international perspective. Finally, the benefits and limitations of the assessment system in its whole, and with its different tools, are discussed against a framework that distinguishes between educational monitoring, support for teaching and learning and certification as core functions of educational assessments. Conclusions are drawn regarding the possibilities to further develop the whole assessment system and its individual tools.