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dc.date.accessioned2021-01-14T13:57:45Z
dc.date.available2021-01-14T13:57:45Z
dc.date.created2021-01-08T21:04:44Z
dc.date.issued2020
dc.identifier.citationGardiner, Gwendolyn Lee, Daniel Baranski, Erica Members of ISP, the Leknes, Siri Holen, Vera Waldal Hansen, Ingelin Tamnes, Christian Krog Klæva, Kaia . Happiness around the World: A Combined Etic-Emic Approach across 63 Countries. PLOS ONE. 2020
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10852/82211
dc.description.abstractWhat does it mean to be happy? The vast majority of cross-cultural studies on happiness have employed a Western-origin, or “WEIRD” measure of happiness that conceptualizes it as a self-centered (or “independent”), high-arousal emotion. However, research from Eastern cultures, particularly Japan, conceptualizes happiness as including an interpersonal aspect emphasizing harmony and connectedness to others. Following a combined emic-etic approach (Cheung, van de Vijver & Leong, 2011), we assessed the cross-cultural applicability of a measure of independent happiness developed in the US (Subjective Happiness Scale; Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999) and a measure of interdependent happiness developed in Japan (Interdependent Happiness Scale; Hitokoto & Uchida, 2015), with data from 63 countries representing 7 sociocultural regions. Results indicate that the schema of independent happiness was more coherent in more WEIRD countries. In contrast, the coherence of interdependent happiness was unrelated to a country’s “WEIRD-ness.” Reliabilities of both happiness measures were lowest in African and Middle Eastern countries, suggesting these two conceptualizations of happiness may not be globally comprehensive. Overall, while the two measures had many similar correlates and properties, the self-focused concept of independent happiness is “WEIRD-er” than interdependent happiness, suggesting cross-cultural researchers should attend to both conceptualizations.
dc.languageEN
dc.publisherPLOS
dc.rightsPublic Domain Dedication
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/
dc.titleHappiness around the World: A Combined Etic-Emic Approach across 63 Countries
dc.typeJournal article
dc.creator.authorGardiner, Gwendolyn
dc.creator.authorLee, Daniel
dc.creator.authorBaranski, Erica
dc.creator.authorMembers of ISP, the
dc.creator.authorLeknes, Siri
dc.creator.authorHolen, Vera Waldal
dc.creator.authorHansen, Ingelin
dc.creator.authorTamnes, Christian Krog
dc.creator.authorKlæva, Kaia
cristin.unitcode185,17,5,0
cristin.unitnamePsykologisk institutt
cristin.ispublishedtrue
cristin.fulltextpostprint
cristin.qualitycode1
dc.identifier.cristin1868098
dc.identifier.bibliographiccitationinfo:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.jtitle=PLOS ONE&rft.volume=&rft.spage=&rft.date=2020
dc.identifier.jtitlePLOS ONE
dc.identifier.volume15
dc.identifier.issue12
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242718
dc.identifier.urnURN:NBN:no-85122
dc.type.documentTidsskriftartikkel
dc.type.peerreviewedPeer reviewed
dc.source.issn1932-6203
dc.identifier.fulltextFulltext https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/82211/5/pone.0242718.pdf
dc.type.versionPublishedVersion
cristin.articleide0242718
dc.relation.projectNFR/223273
dc.relation.projectNFR/288083


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