Abstract: Previous reports of inhibitory deficits in mood disorders, and findings of associations between inhibitory control and cognitive reappraisal, suggest that emotion regulation might depend on inhibitory control. Furthermore, frontal-midline theta (FMθ) activity has previously been associated to both cognitive control and emotion processing- and regulation, indicating that it may reflect some of the same underlying mechanisms. The present study sought to investigate associations between inhibitory control, cognitive reappraisal, and frontal-midline theta. A sample of healthy participants completed a stop-signal task with concurrent EEG recordings. Following task completion, all participants filled out questionnaires assessing their use of emotion regulation strategies, and their levels of positive and negative affect. While no significant correlations were found between cognitive reappraisal and negative affect, nor between inhibitory performance and negative affect, a moderation analysis revealed a significant association between cognitive reappraisal and negative affect for slow inhibitors. This finding could be interpreted to mean that while poorer inhibitors benefit from cognitive reappraisal, better inhibitors might implement inhibition-related regulation at earlier stages of emotion generation. This interpretation corresponds with Joormanns (2010) model of the role of inhibitory deficits in mood disorders, where impairments in inhibitory control are believed to lead to sustained negative affect. The present results indicate that inhibition might not only be an important mechanism in emotion regulation in mood disorders, but also in healthy individuals. A significant correlation was found between FMθ and inhibitory control, but not between FMθ during inhibitory processing and negative affect. This indicates that FMθ elicited during inhibitory processing may not relate to emotion regulation. Whether FMθ activity elicited during emotion processing and regulation reflects the engagement of the same neural regions involved in cognitive control processing, such as inhibition, needs further research.