Context. Observational and theoretical evidence suggest that beams of accelerated particles are produced in flaring events of all sizes in the solar atmosphere, from X-class flares to nanoflares. Current models of these types of particles in flaring loops assume an isolated 1D atmosphere. Aims. A more realistic environment for modelling accelerated particles can be provided by 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamics codes. Here, we present a simple model for particle acceleration and propagation in the context of a 3D simulation of the quiet solar atmosphere, spanning from the convection zone to the corona. We then examine the additional transport of energy introduced by the particle beams. Methods. The locations of particle acceleration associated with magnetic reconnection were identified by detecting changes in magnetic topology. At each location, the parameters of the accelerated particle distribution were estimated from local conditions. The particle distributions were then propagated along the magnetic field, and the energy deposition due to Coulomb collisions with the ambient plasma was computed. Results. We find that particle beams originate in extended acceleration regions that are distributed across the corona. Upon reaching the transition region, they converge and produce strands of intense heating that penetrate the chromosphere. Within these strands, beam heating consistently dominates conductive heating below the bottom of the transition region. This indicates that particle beams qualitatively alter the energy transport even outside of active regions.