In late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis, genes, infections and immunity could be significant factors. We have reviewed if the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis may affect genes and microglia (primary immune cells in the brain) to promote AD development. Genes for apolipoprotein, clusterin, CD33, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2), tyrosine kinase binding protein (TYR-OBP), and complement receptors can affect microglia. Most of these genes can also be affected by P. gingivalis via its mastering of immune suppression. Besides, P. gingivalis can affect microglia directly in several ways. Taken together, genetic predisposition, P. gingivalis infection and microglia could promote neurodegeneration typical of that reported for AD.
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