Background. Late diagnosis of prostate cancer is common in low and middle income countries and contributes to high morbidity and mortality of the disease. Utilization of prostate cancer screening services plays a major role in prevention of adverse outcomes. However, there is limited information on the knowledge about, the perceived risk of, and the utilization of prostate cancer screening in Tanzania. Objective. To determine knowledge and perceived risk of prostate cancer, and the utilization of prostate cancer screening services, and associated factors, among men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Design. A population-based cross-sectional study involving men aged 40 years and above living in Dar es Salaam was conducted between May and August, 2018. Methodology. Participants were recruited through multistage random sampling and took part in structured face-to-face interviews. Categorical variables were summarized using proportions while continuous variables were summarized as medians and inter-quarterly range (IQR). Chi square test was used to compare differences between proportions, and logistic regression modelling was used to determine factors associated with utilization of prostate cancer screening. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals, are reported. All analyses were two-tailed and the significance level set at 5%. Results. A total of 388 men with a median age of 53 years (IQR 44–55) participated. Half (52.1%) had poor knowledge about prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening. A third (32.3%, ) perceived the risk of prostate cancer to be low. Only 30 respondents (7.7%) had ever been screened for prostate cancer. Utilization of prostate cancer screening services was independently associated with age above 60 years [AOR = 21.46, 95% CI: 6.23, 73.93], monthly income above 305 US Dollars [AOR = 15.68, 95% CI: 4.60, 53.48], the perceived risk of prostate cancer [AOR = 16.34, 95% CI: 7.82, 14.92] and knowledge about prostate cancer [AOR = 67.71, 95% CI: 8.20, 559.57]. Conclusions. Knowledge about prostate cancer and prostate cancer screening services was low among men in Dar es Salaam with a third perceiving themselves to be at no risk for the disease. Utilization of screening services was low and associated with low income, younger age, low perceived risk of prostate cancer and low knowledge about the disease. Intervention measures aiming to increase knowledge about prostate cancer and screening services, and affordable provision of services, are urgently called for.
Knowledge, Perceived Risk and Utilization of Prostate Cancer Screening Services among Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
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