Paternal lifestyle during sperm development can have an impact on foetal development. This study surveys demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors among expectant fathers who reported use of cannabis and cocaine in the six-month period before conception. We also study the associations between mothers’ and fathers’ use of cannabis and cocaine. This is a cross-sectional study from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) using self-reported data on demographic variables and cannabis and cocaine use six months before conception. Associations were assessed using logistic regression and chi-square tests. A strong association was found between use of cannabis and cocaine and lifestyle habits such as alcohol and cigarette use. Alcohol consumption four or more times a week gave an adjusted odds ratio (a OR) of 9.7 (95% CI 7.2–13.0) for cannabis and an a OR 21.6 (95% CI 11.5–40.3) for cocaine. There was also a strong association between maternal and paternal use of cannabis and cocaine. Use of cannabis and cocaine close to pregnancy seems to be closely linked to other risk factors, and further studies on how paternal drug use affects the foetus are warranted. The strong association between maternal and paternal use of cannabis and cocaine may be used to inform healthcare workers to make good risk assessments.
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