Existing consumer VR systems support text input using handheld controllers in combination with virtual keyboards and many designers have attempted to build on these widely used techniques. However, information on current and well-established VR text-input techniques is lacking. In this work, we conduct a comparative empirical evaluation of four controller-based VR text-input techniques, namely, raycasting, drum-like keyboard, head-directed input, and split keyboard. We focus on their text-entry rate and accuracy, usability, and user experience. Twenty-two participants evaluated the techniques by completing a typing session, answering usability and user-experience questionnaires, and participating in a semi-structured interview. The drum-like keyboard and the raycasting techniques stood out, achieving good usability scores, positive experiential feedback, satisfactory text-entry rates, and moderate error rates that can be reduced in future studies. The specific documented usability and experiential characteristics of the techniques are presented and discussed herein.
Controller-based Text-input Techniques for Virtual Reality: An Empirical Comparison
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