Defects, as determined by Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), in the complement cascade of innate immunity have been suggested to play a key role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These defective genes encode sub-component 1s (C1s), complement receptor 1, complement component 9, and clusterin, a fluid-phase regulatory protein. A dysregulated complement cascade has been shown to relate to cell activation, defective complement mediated clearance and possible cognitive decline in AD patients. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a putative keystone pathogen of periodontal disease, has been reported to be associated with human AD. The inflammatory burden following experimental oral infection in mice and putative entry of this bacterium into the brain appears to drive the formation of amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles with loss of cognition. P. gingivalis is a master of immune subversion in this inflammatory cascade and may establish microbial dysbiosis where it is located. Here we discuss if P. gingivalis may enhance the detrimental effects of the defective GWAS complement cascade protein genes.
This item's license is: Attribution 4.0 International