Over the past few years, with the rapid progress in the field of nano-biotechnology and also increasing concerns regarding nanosafety, suggesting new strategies for modulating the toxicity of nanomaterials has attracted much attentions among biomedical engineering scientists. Recently, designing nanomaterials with high biocompatibility is a great challenge in the biomedicine world. It is crucial to investigate operative approaches for modulating the effects of nanomaterials’ surfaces on the cellular and molecular responses. Unlike many toxicological investigations and chemistry synthesis, the biocompatibility of nanomaterials still remains in its infancy. This short review addresses the current research concerning using nanomaterials in biomedical engineering applications. A general overview of the immunological responses to nanomaterials will be concisely discussed.
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