To examine uptake following a large‐scale naloxone programme by estimating distribution rates since programme initiation and the proportion among a sample of high‐risk individuals who had attended naloxone training, currently possessed or had used naloxone. We also estimated the likelihood of naloxone possession and use as a function of programme duration, individual descriptive and substance use indicators.
Primary outcomes: naloxone possession and use. Random‐intercepts logistic regression models (covariates: male, age, homelessness/shelter use, overdose, incarceration, opioid maintenance treatment, income sources, substance use indicators, programme duration).
Findings: Overall, 4631 naloxone nasal sprays were distributed in the two pilot cities, with a cumulative rate of 495 per 100 000 population. In the same two cities, among high‐risk individuals, 44% and 62% reported current naloxone possession. The possession rates of naloxone corresponded well to the duration of each participating city's distribution programme. Overall, in the six distributing cities, 58% reported naloxone training, 43% current possession and 15% naloxone use. The significant indicators for possession were programme duration [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.82–2.37], female gender (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.20–3.24) and drug‐dealing (aOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.42–3.93). The significant indicators for naloxone use were programme duration (aOR = 1.49 95%, CI = 1.15–1.92), homelessness/shelter use (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.02–4.17), opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.13–3.78), drug‐dealing (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27–4.54) and heroin injecting (aOR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.04–4.38).
Conclusions: A large‐scale naloxone programme in seven Norwegian cities with a cumulative distribution rate of 495 per 100 000 population indicated good saturation in a sample of high‐risk individuals, with programme duration in each city as an important indicator for naloxone possession and use.
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