Low morphological diversity among interstitial taxa makes it difficult to delimit species and their geographic boundaries based solely on morphology and molecular data often reveal cryptic species. Polygordius (Annelida, Polygordiidae) have low morphological diversity, but are unusual among interstitial species in their comparatively large size due to their elongated form, high fecundity, and potential for long-distance dispersal via a planktotrophic larval stage. Polygordius species collected from 14 localities in the Northwest Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, and Southwest Atlantic including several of the respective type localities were analysed. This study presents the first phylogeny of the genus Polygordius and combines molecular data, sequences of COI, 16S and ITS1/2 genes, and morphological data for a systematic re-evaluation focusing on Atlantic species, with an emphasis on populations from European waters. Phylogenetic analyses recovered six valid species (P. appendiculatus, P. lacteus, P. neapolitanus, P. triestinus, P. jouinae, and P. eschaturus) and their distinctness is confirmed by haplotype network analyses. Thus, molecular data supported the validity of the previously recognized morpho-species and no new species were present. P. erythrophthalmus and P. villoti are invalid species being synonymous with P. lacteus. Subtle differences in head and pygidial morphology and larval type (endolarva vs. exolarva), were useful characters for discrimination. Yet seemingly significant variation in characters among individuals in some species was not diagnostic (e.g., number of pygidial cirri). Highly similar species based on adult morphology were shown to be sister taxa occurring in allopatry. Present day distribution patterns of species are summarized in light of this study.