The intracellular movement and positioning of organelles and vesicles is mediated by the cytoskeleton and molecular motors. Small GTPases like Rab and Arf proteins are main regulators of intracellular transport by connecting membranes to cytoskeleton motors or adaptors. However, it is becoming clear that interactions between these small GTPases and the cytoskeleton are important not only for the regulation of membrane transport. In this review, we will cover our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the connection between Rab and Arf GTPases and the cytoskeleton, with special emphasis on the double role of these interactions, not only in membrane trafficking but also in membrane and cytoskeleton remodeling. Furthermore, we will highlight the most recent findings about the fine control mechanisms of crosstalk between different members of Rab, Arf, and Rho families of small GTPases in the regulation of cytoskeleton organization.
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