In Nairobi's informal settlements, 5 persons are killed every week by the police. This thesis investigates extra-judicial killings (EJKs) and police violence in Nairobi's informal settlements and analyses them as a result of the criminalisation of poverty. Kenya has ratified most UN human rights treaties, has a strong progressive constitution, hosts country offices for multiple INGOs, and has national human rights institutions. Nevertheless, EJKs are constantly raising. This raises questions about the human rights approach, its effectiveness and how best to implement it. This thesis explores why there was a perceived need for a new kind of mobilisation in response to the rise in EJKs and covers the emergence of social justice centres. It investigates the strategies and frames used by the centres and their holistic approach of connecting socio-economic concerns and EJKs. In seeking explanations, the dynamics between those SJCs and INGOs and their respective approaches are compared and contrasted. This thesis also analyses whether INGOs’ resolution of working with GHRDs is successful, and if together those actors manage to reconnect rights with people experiencing violations. Finally, the thesis scrutinises the challenges faced by human rights actors working on EJKs. This will enable concluding on whether human rights have potential to adapt to become more efficient.