This study explores the nature of the Anglo-Iraqi so-called friendship in the period 1950–1953. Within this friendship, the role of defence is given principal focus but seen in close connection to diplomacy. This dissertation’s main arguments are that 1) a re-invention of defence cooperation between Britain and Iraq took place and a mechanism of trade where equipment was supplied in exchange for protection emerged. This is thus regarded as an invention from the 1950s rather than as a continuous phenomenon dating back to the period when Iraq was a British mandate (1920–1932). 2) The re-establishment of defence cooperation came to facilitate Britain’s change of defence strategy in the Middle East in January 1953. It also facilitated a closer Anglo-Iraqi diplomatic relationship from that time and towards late 1953. 3) The bilateral Anglo-Iraqi equipment for protection mechanism ended in late 1953. This was a result of an altered understanding of the Anglo-Iraqi relationship within the British government in Whitehall. Partly, the mechanism ended also as a result of external impact, which was the active Iraq policy launched by the US government in late 1953. This dissertation’s primarily goal is to explain why the British policy towards Iraq in 1950–1953 came to be as it was. One underlying assertion is that a fusion of defence and foreign policy was in effect in Britain from after 1945 until 2000, as outlined by Croft et al. in Britain and Defence: A Policy Re-evaluation, London: Longman, 2001. According to this historical theory, British policy became characterised by a widespread assumption that to defend as much as possible of all previously acclaimed obligations overseas was considered an imperative and a vital British interest. In turn, the motivation behind this particular post-war British policy is regarded as a mixture of psychology, prestige and practice, as outlined by Graham Jevon in Glubb Pasha and the Arab Legion: Britain, Jordan and the End of Empire in the Middle East, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017. However, as the fusion of foreign and defence policy is an overarching and theoretical abstraction, the British policy towards Iraq will be explored as a unique phenomenon, sometimes in accordance with and sometimes in opposition to this historical theory. This study is of specific interest to those who will learn more about Britain’s imperial moment in Iraq during the early Cold War, specifically about Britain’s connection to Iraq and what came to alter it and why. These insights will also be of general interest to those who are concerned with the role of defence within international relations.