New Trends in Nordic and General Linguistics. 2015, 239-267
This paper investigates the word order in embedded clauses in Heritage Scandinavian (American Norwegian and American Swedish). It is shown that Heritage Scandinavian has a substantial amount of verb-raising across negation in embedded clauses. Verb-raising (i. e. the order verb–negation) is found in thatclauses, relative clauses and embedded questions; only the first allow the order verb–adverb in European Norwegian and Swedish. It is argued that the non-standard order (from a European perspective) should not be viewed as a consequence of direct transfer from English, and not as attrition. Instead, limited or incomplete acquisition of the heritage language leads to a grammar with V-to-T movement in addition to V-to-C movement. The acquisition of the heritage languages is assumed to follow the same path as the acquisition of the European Scandinavian languages, but it is delayed due to the limited input and interrupted when the heritage speakers start school.