From Manual to Autonomous: One-Hundred Years of Maritime Ship-to-Ship Collision Liability. On the Material Rules and Evaluation of Fault in Collisions between Vessels: Scandinavian Maritime Collision Liability from 1918 to 2018.
Liability in a ship-to-ship collision subject to Norwegian law can only be imposed if the tortfeasor has exhibited fault. As strict liability in no circumstances can be applied, collision liability is subject to the establishment of fault following a holistic assessment. Supplementing with ordinary tort law principles, in combination with an analysis of the last one-hundred years of maritime collision cases, it is however possible to identify a framework of evaluation which is presented herein. As there is a demand for legal research pertaining the liability of autonomous vessels, special attention has been given to collisions involving autonomous operation.