The argument referring to a hidden God, deus absconditus, is a controversial but crucial point in the theology of Martin Luther. A key issue for Luther is the very distinction between the revealed and the hidden God, which prevents abuse and domestication of God’s name and authority. However, this topos can also be seen as a place of origin for modern atheism, as discussed by Hegel, Nietzsche, and Heidegger. The claim of God’s hiddenness introduces a destruction of traditional metaphysics, and hence a radical reconsideration on anthropology, texts, and phenomena. The author analyses this topos of thought in modern philosophy, from Pascal and Kant to Jacobi, Hegel, Nietzsche, Heidegger and Derrida. He argues that the deus absconditus remains a highly questionable place of philosophical discourse, but therefore also represents a continuous questioning of the intellectual premises for late modern atheism.