Current-source density (CSD) analysis is a well-established method for analyzing recorded local field potentials (LFPs), that is, the low-frequency part of extracellular potentials. Standard CSD theory is based on the assumption that all extracellular currents are purely ohmic, and thus neglects the possible impact from ionic diffusion on recorded potentials. However, it has previously been shown that in physiological conditions with large ion-concentration gradients, diffusive currents can evoke slow shifts in extracellular potentials. Using computer simulations, we here show that diffusion-evoked potential shifts can introduce errors in standard CSD analysis, and can lead to prediction of spurious current sources. Further, we here show that the diffusion-evoked prediction errors can be removed by using an improved CSD estimator which accounts for concentration-dependent effects.
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