ABSTRACT Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease caused by an intravascular parasitic worm of the Schistosoma (S.) family. More than 200 million people are infected, most of them live on the African continent. The human disease relates to tissue reactions in the locations where worms lay their ova. Various Schistosoma species have preferred anatomical locations for egg deposition. S. haematobium typically settles in pelvic vessels and is clinically most known for egg related lesions in the urinary bladder mucosa. This leads to ulcerations and bleeding, presented as hematuria. Similar egg related lesions can however be seen in other epithelial locations such as the mucosa of the female genital tract, referred to as female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). In recent years, FGS has received more attention due to an association with increased risk of HIV transmission. Our thesis consists of two parts. The first part relates to a non-systematic search in schistosomiasis literature with focus on FGS. The second part relates to data from fieldwork in a shisto-endemic area in KwaZulu Natal in South Africa. We participated in preparatory work for a hospital-based study on colposcopic and histopathologic correlations in the various FGS lesions. Better understanding of the correlation between an observed FGS mucosal lesion and the tissue reaction is important in the diagnostics, risk assessment and treatment strategies. A more fact based clinical assessment of FGS lesions is especially important, as African guidelines warn taking biopsies from the cervix and vagina due to increased risk of HIV transmission in biopsy relate ulcers.