Background: Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis denotes the exertional damage of myocytes with leakage of sarcoplasmic content into the circulation. The purpose of this study was to determine important risk factors for the development of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a temperate climate and to study the renal effects of myoglobinuria.
Methods: A cluster of eight military recruits was admitted to hospital due to exertional rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria. The patients were treated according to current guidelines with isotonic saline and alkalinisation of the urine. The eight patients were compared with a randomly selected control group of 26 healthy fellow recruits. All subjects responded to a standardised questionnaire.
Results: There were little differences in baseline characteristics between patients and controls. In the present study, exercise intensity, duration and type were all significant determinants of exertional rhabdomyolysis in univariate models. However, in a multivariate model, high exercise intensity on day −1 was the only significant predictor of rhabdomyolysis (p=0.02). All patients had a stable serum creatinine and cystatin C. There was a significant increase in serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in the patients, suggesting renal stress.
Conclusions: Sustained maximal intensity exercise is a crucial risk factor for rhabdomyolysis with gross pigmenturia. Elevated serum NGAL concentrations indicate the presence of renal stress. It appears to be possible to quantify the risk of rhabdomyolysis by means of a simple questionnaire. In the future, this may be used as a tool to prevent rhabdomyolysis.
This item's license is: Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International