## Search

Now showing items 1-100 of 192

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2021)

Submarine mass movements are important sources for tsunamis with potential destructive consequences at coastlines. A famous example from historical records is, for instance, the 1929 Grand Banks tsunami in Canada. This ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / SubmittedVersion, 2021)

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

This study presents wave measurements in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) obtained from ship mounted sensors. The system combines altimeter readings from the ship bow with ship motion correction data to provide estimated single ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Many of the widely used models for description of nonlinear surface gravity waves, in deep or shallow water, such as High Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and Boussinesq-type equations, rely on the elimination of the vertical ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

108844

(Chapter / Bokkapittel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

This paper presents the results of statistical analyses on the difference between measured and calculated fatigue rates for an ocean-going container vessel. Data from a hull monitoring system installed on-board this ship ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Cardiac muscle cells can exhibit complex patterns including irregular behaviour such as chaos or (chaotic) early afterdepolarisations (EADs), which can lead to sudden cardiac death. Suitable mathematical models and their ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Background
Gestational age is a useful proxy for assessing developmental maturity, but correct estimation of gestational age is difficult using clinical measures. DNA methylation at birth has proven to be ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) has recently spread into a range of domains within physics and engineering, with multiple remarkable achievements. Still, much remains to be explored before the capabilities of these methods ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

A sharp version of a recent inequality of Kovalev and Yang on the ratio of the (H1)∗ and H4 norms for certain polynomials is obtained. The inequality is applied to establish a sharp and tractable sufficient condition for ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

We study the dynamic wetting of a self-propelled viscous droplet using the time-dependent lubrication equation on a conical-shaped substrate for different cone radii, cone angles and slip lengths. The droplet velocity is ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

We study the stability of a unique weak solution to certain parabolic systems with nonstandard growth condition, which are additionally dependent on a cross-diffusion term. More precisely, we show that two unique weak ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2021)

The development of research and exploration in Arctic waters is very common nowadays. One of the environmental difficulties to carry out research in these regions is the icing of surfaces. After short periods of time, ice ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

With the introduction of the exchange-traded German wind power futures, opportunities for German wind power producers to hedge their volumetric risk are present. We propose two continuous-time multivariate models for wind ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Background
Studies of mammalian CSF dynamics have been focused on three things: paravascular flow, pressure and pulsatility, and “bulk” flow; and three (respective) potential motive forces have been ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Graph products of groups were introduced by Green in her thesis [32]. They have an operator algebraic counterpart introduced and explored in [14]. In this paper we prove Khintchine type inequalities for general C⁎-algebraic ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2021)

Both in science and industry, the sizes of data sets are growing. It is not uncommon to encounter sets containing millions or even billions of measurements. Without appropriate tools for turning such enormous amounts of ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Structural reliability analysis is concerned with estimation of the probability of a critical event taking place, described by P(g(X)≤0) for some n-dimensional random variable X and some real-valued function g. In many ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Operating in energy and commodity markets require a management of risk using derivative products such as forward and futures, as well as options on these. Many of the popular stochastic models for spot dynamics and weather ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

System logs or log files containing textual messages with associated time stamps are generated by many technologies and systems. The clustering technique proposed in this paper provides a tool to discover and identify ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) defined on domains with different dimensionality are usually called mixed-dimensional PDEs. We address mixed-dimensional PDEs on three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

The present study was originally motivated by some intriguing exact solutions for waves propagating in nonuniform media. In particular, for special depth profiles reflected waves did not appear and ray theory became exact. ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

This work introduces the deconvolution as a technique to reconstruct missing information in data. While the method was originally developed for ocean waves, it will be useful in a wider range of applications where gaps in ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Two-phase oil and gas flow were simulated in an entirely eccentric annulus and compared with experimental data at horizontal, 4, 10, and 90° inclination. The gas-phase was sulphur hexafluoride and the liquid phase a mixture ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2021)

Many important results in mathematics deal with the question of figuring out what objects are ‘the same’. One way of rigorously dealing with this is through the notion of isomorphic objects. However, it is sometimes better ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Plants and insects use slender conical structures to transport and collect small droplets, which are propelled along the conical structures due to capillary action. These droplets can deposit a fluid film during their ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

This paper considers data-based real-time adaptive Fault Detection (FD) in Grid-connected PV (GPV) systems under Power Point Tracking (PPT) modes during large variations. Faults under PPT modes remain undetected for longer ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

A novel Dynamic Kernel PCA (DKPCA) method is developed for process monitoring in nonlinear dynamical systems. Classical DKPCA approaches still exhibit vague linearity assumptions to determine the number of principal ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2021)

The production of renewable energy is growing world-wide, and -- as a result -- power production is becoming increasingly dependent on weather factors such as temperature, wind and precipitation. All of these factors are ...

Accurate discretization of poroelasticity without Darcy stability -- Stokes–Biot stability revisited

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Abstract In this manuscript we focus on the question: what is the correct notion of Stokes–Biot stability? Stokes–Biot stable discretizations have been introduced, independently by several authors, as a means of discretizing ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

We introduce a mean counting function for Dirichlet series, which plays the same role in the function theory of Hardy spaces of Dirichlet series as the Nevanlinna counting function does in the classical theory. The existence ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2021)

In this thesis, two-phase flow in an annular pipe geometry is studied using an open-source software known as OpenFOAM. The data collected through the simulations in this thesis are compared to experimental data collected ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Experimental and numerical evidence have shown that nonuniform bathymetry may alter significantly the statistical properties of surface elevation in irregular wave fields. The probability of “rogue” waves is increased near ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

We introduce a rough perturbation of the Navier–Stokes system and justify its physical relevance from balance of momentum and conservation of circulation in the inviscid limit. We present a framework for a well-posedness ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / SubmittedVersion, 2021)

We analyse forward prices observed at the Fishpool market, and propose a two-factor continuous-time stochastic process for modelling the time dynamics. The data analysis reveals that the two factors can be assumed to be a ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

We study the computational complexity of three representations of irrational numbers: standard Baire sequences, dual Baire sequences and contractors. Our main results: Irrationals whose standard Baire sequences are of low ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Background
Several central nervous system diseases are associated with disturbed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow patterns and have typically been characterized in vivo by phase-contrast magnetic resonance ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Rational quartic spectrahedra in 3-space are semialgebraic convex subsets in R3 of semidefinite, real symmetric (4×4)-matrices, whose boundary admits a rational parameterization. The Zariski closure in CP3 of the boundary ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2021)

Abstract We study C*-algebras generated by left regular representations of right LCM one-relator monoids and Artin–Tits monoids of finite type. We obtain structural results concerning nuclearity, ideal structure and pure ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Background
Infusion testing is a common procedure to determine whether shunting will be beneficial in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus. The method has a well-developed theoretical foundation and ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

This thesis presents new statistical methodology, models, and estimators that are geared towards answering scientific questions in epidemiology and medicine, and in economics and finance. The questions are: (i) What is the ...

Stochastic Modeling with Fractional and non-Fractional Noises: Applications to Finance and Insurance

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

In my doctoral work, I have developed stochastic models that use different type of noises, to price financial derivatives and insurance products.
Stock prices have a random component in their behavior that characterizes ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

This thesis is a collection of four papers about symmetric and Hermitian determinantal representations of quartic hypersurfaces.
- Paper I classifies rational quartic symmetroids in 3-space.
- Paper II classifies rational ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Statistical models are often fitted to obtain a concise description of the association of an outcome variable with some covariates. Even if background knowledge is available to guide preselection of covariates, stepwise ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

The recently proposed glymphatic system suggests that bulk flow is important for clearing waste from the brain, and as such may underlie the development of e.g. Alzheimer’s disease. The glymphatic hypothesis is still ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Background
Graph-based reference genomes have become popular as they allow read mapping and follow-up analyses in settings where the exact haplotypes underlying a high-throughput sequencing experiment are ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We prove that there exists a pencil of Enriques surfaces defined over Q with non-algebraic integral Hodge classes of non-torsion type. This gives the first example of a threefold with the trivial Chow group of zero-cycles ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We classify rational, irreducible quartic symmetroids in projective 3-space. They are either singular along a line or a smooth conic section, or they have a triple point or a tacnode.

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

This thesis describes a finite element method for simulation of free-surface flows, such as ocean waves, using the discontinuous Galerkin method. Free-surface flows where there is a large difference in density between two ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

In the last decades the analytical value of data has really become apparent and the amount of data collected has vastly increased. This enables us to approach problems in more data driven manners. In the thesis, I have ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Time integration of Fourier pseudospectral DNS is usually performed using the classical fourth‐order accurate Runge‐Kutta method or other second‐ or third‐order methods, with a fixed step size. We investigate the use of ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Present first-order based design code formulations for slender columns in frames with sway, employ sway magnification factors (for global second-order effects) also as moment magnifiers for the individual columns of the ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

The coupled Darcy–Stokes problem is widely used for modeling fluid transport in physical systems consisting of a porous part and a free part. In this work we consider preconditioners for monolithic solution algorithms of ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Let X be a Riemannian manifold and xn a sequence of points in X. Assume that we know a priori some properties of the set A of cluster points of xn. The question is under what conditions that xn will converge. An answer to ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We define Chern–Schwartz–MacPherson (CSM) cycles of an arbitrary matroid. These are balanced weighted fans supported on the skeleta of the corresponding Bergman fan. In the case that the matroid arises from a complex ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We report laboratory experiments of long-crested irregular water surface waves propagating over a shoal. For a sufficiently shallow shoal we find that the surface elevation can have a local maximum of skewness and kurtosis ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

This paper is concerned with properties of permutation matrices and alternating sign matrices (ASMs). An ASM is a square (0,±1)-matrix such that, ignoring 0’s, the 1’s and −1’s in each row and column alternate, beginning ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a common tool in the literature and widely used for process monitoring and fault detection. Traditional PCA is associated with the two well-known control charts, the Hotelling’s T2 and ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Previous studies of fetal death with maternal influenza have been inconsistent. We explored the effect of maternal influenza-like illness (ILI) in pregnancy on the risk of fetal death, distinguishing between diagnoses ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

The continuous growth in maritime traffic and recent developments towards autonomous navigation have directed increasing attention to navigational safety in which new tools are required to identify real-time risk and complex ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We continue our study of the Fourier–Stieltjes algebra associated to a twisted (unital, discrete) C*-dynamical system and discuss how the various notions of equivalence of such systems are reflected at the algebra level. ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

In this paper, we consider the Keller–Segel chemotaxis system with additional cross-diffusion term in the second equation. This system is consisting of a fully nonlinear reaction–diffusion equations with additional ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Environmental contours are used in structural reliability analysis of marine and coastal structures as an approximate means to locate the boundary of the distribution of environmental variables, and hence sets of environmental ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Spot option prices, forwards and options on forwards relevant for the commodity markets are computed when the underlying process S is modelled as an exponential of a process ξ with memory as, e.g., a Volterra equation ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Kemeny's constant κ(G) of a connected undirected graph G can be interpreted as the expected transit time between two randomly chosen vertices for the Markov chain associated with G. In certain cases, inserting a new edge ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

In the statistical literature, the class of survival analysis models known as cure models has received much attention in recent years. Cure models seem not, however, to be part of the statistical toolbox of perinatal ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Sediment slumps are known to have generated important tsunamis such as the 1998 Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the 1929 Grand Banks events. Tsunami modellers commonly use solid blocks with short run-out distances to simulate ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We derive bounds for the constants in Poincaré–Friedrichs inequalities with respect to mesh-dependent norms for complexes of discrete distributional differential forms. A key tool is a generalized flux reconstruction which ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Logic regression was developed more than a decade ago as a tool to construct predictors from Boolean combinations of binary covariates. It has been mainly used to model epistatic effects in genetic association studies, ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

An old question of Mori asks whether in dimension at least three, any smooth specialization of a hypersurface of prime degree is again a hypersurface. A positive answer to this question is only known in degrees two and ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We prove that the product of an Enriques surface and a very general curve of genus at least 1 does not satisfy the integral Hodge conjecture for 1-cycles. This provides the first examples of smooth projective complex ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We present a collection of research questions on cubic surfaces in 3-space. These questions inspired the present collection of papers. This article serves as the introduction to the issue. The number of questions is meant ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

This paper deals with a homogeneous Neumann problem of a nonlinear diffusion system involving variable exponents dependent on spatial and time variables and cross-diffusion terms. We prove the existence of weak solutions ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

It is well known that randomness can be used as an effective tool to turn a priori ill-posed problems into well-posed ones. This is useful both for answering questions at the theoretical as well as the practical levels. ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

In this paper we aim at modeling stochastic transition rates of state processes in life insurance by using generalized Cox processes. A feature of a our non-Gaussian model is that it can be used to capture ‘regime switching’ ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

There are currently two paradigm shifts happening in society and scientific computing: (1) Artificial Intelligence (AI) is replacing humans in problem solving, and, (2) AI is replacing the standard algorithms in computational ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Background
The standard lasso penalty and its extensions are commonly used to develop a regularized regression model while selecting candidate predictor variables on a time-to-event outcome in high-dimensional ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

A user defined cohesive material model is implemented in the LS-DYNA finite element code. The model is based on interface properties characterised from DCB specimens loaded with unequal bending moments. Different mode ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Using recent results of Bayer–Macrì, we compute in many cases the pseudoeffective and nef cones of the projectivised cotangent bundle of a smooth projective K3 surface. We then use these results to construct explicit ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

Dementia is a growing concern for the health-care in the world and most treatment strategies are not successful. Dementia is associated with accumulation of metabolic waste in the form of protein fragments. Recent breakthroughs ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Epigenetic observations are represented by the total number of reads from a given pool of cells and the number of methylated reads, making it reasonable to model this data by a binomial distribution. There are numerous ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We prove a strengthened form of convexity for operator monotone decreasing positive functions defined on the positive real numbers. This extends Ando and Hiai's work to allow arbitrary positive maps instead of states (or ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

The seller's risk-indifference price evaluation is studied. We propose a dynamic risk-indifference pricing criterion derived from fully-dynamic risk measures on the $L_p$-spaces for $p\in [1,\infty]$. The concept of ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We have developed an efficient methodology for Bayesian prediction of lithology and pore fluid, and layer-bounding horizons, in which we include and use spatial geologic prior knowledge such as vertical ordering of ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

In this paper, we provide new results and algorithms (including backtracking versions of Nesterov accelerated gradient and Momentum) which are more applicable to large scale optimisation as in Deep Neural Networks. We also ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

The existence of large and extreme claims of a non-life insurance portfolio influences the ability of (re)insurers to estimate the reserve. The excess over-threshold method provides a way to capture and model the typical ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We study the logical and computational properties of basic theorems of uncountable mathematics, in particular Pincherle's theorem, published in 1882. This theorem states that a locally bounded function is bounded on certain ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We study first-order concatenation theory with bounded quantifiers. We give axiomatizations with interesting properties, and we prove some normal-form results. Finally, we prove a number of decidability and undecidability results.

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

This paper focuses on the active flow control of a computational fluid dynamics simulation over a range of Reynolds numbers using deep reinforcement learning (DRL). More precisely, the proximal policy optimization (PPO) ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

The process of a circular free falling jet entering an idle pool was studied with the objective of determining a relation between the naturally occurring disturbances on the jet surface and air entrainment. To this end the ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

The liberalization of energy markets worldwide during recent decades has introduced severe implications for the price formation in these markets. Especially within the European day-ahead electricity markets, increased ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

Airflow above water waves represents a challenging problem, relevant both in air-sea interactions and for multiphase pipe flows. Understanding this interaction is important to accurately predict the exchange of heat, ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / PublishedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

Somatic copy number alterations are a frequent sign of genome instability in cancer. A precise characterization of the genome architecture would reveal underlying instability mechanisms and provide an instrument for outcome ...

(Journal article / Tidsskriftartikkel / AcceptedVersion; Peer reviewed, 2020)

We study the derived category of a complete intersection X of bilinear divisors in the orbifold Sym2P(V) . Our results are in the spirit of Kuznetsov’s theory of homological projective duality, and we describe a homological ...

(Doctoral thesis / Doktoravhandling, 2020)

Biological membranes have fundamental implications in a large number of processes in the cell. As such, membranes possess important properties: they can change their shape as an elastic surface, and they are fluid, which ...