Complete mitochondrial genomes of five syllids (Streptosyllis sp., Eusyllis blomstrandi, Myrianida brachycephala, Typosyllis antoni and Typosyllis sp.) have been obtained using Illumina sequencing. Together with two previous studied taxa (Ramisyllis multicaudata and Trypanobia cryptica), the analysed sequences represent most of the main lineages within the family Syllidae (Anoplosyllinae, Eusyllinae, Autolytinae and Syllinae). The genomic features, gene order and phylogenetic relationships are examined. Unusual for annelids, syllid mitochondrial genomes are highly variable in their gene order. Considering genomic features, such as length, skewness, gene content, and codon bias, most similar to the rest of annelids are the genomes of E. blomstrandi and M. brachycephala, while Streptosyllis sp. and the analysed sylline taxa (R. multicaudata, T. cryptica, T. antoni and Typosyllis sp.) are the most dissimilar. Two methionine tRNA's (trnM) have been found in T. antoni and Typosyllis sp. The mt genomes of these latter taxa are the longest with numerous non-coding regions. The 13 protein coding genes, as well as the rRNA's are used to perform phylogenetic analyses that recovered the relationships within the family explored before by previous authors. The gene order in Syllidae shows very different patterns. E. blomstrandi and M. prolifera show a similar pattern to the one found in Pleistoannelida; however this might have changed at least twice within Syllidae: in Streptosyllis sp. and within Syllinae. All analysed Syllinae show different gene orders, thereby illustrating more variability as all other pleistoannelids analysed so far. The information provided herein allows a more accurate reconstruction of the possible evolutionary scenarios in Syllidae.
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