Dairy protein, exercise and inflammatory markers in older adults
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AbstractWe have investigated the effects of adding dairy protein to the diet of older adults on muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance and inflammation, and if there are differences in the response of immune-related markers in skeletal muscle and white blood cells (PBMCs) after strength exercise combined with different protein source (milk and whey). Compared to an isocaloric carbohydrate drink, increased protein intake did not improve the markers investigated, and different types of dairy protein exerted similar effects on immune-related markers. However, combined strength training and protein supplementation caused an acute increase of several immune-related markers in both skeletal muscle and PBMCs, possibly being important contributors to muscle repair, regeneration and adaptive processes. Eleven weeks of strength training caused reduced levels of immune-related markers in PBMCs, possibly contributing to the immune-modulating effects observed after exercise. Furthermore, skeletal muscle and PBMCs may provide complementary insight into the molecular response to exercise and protein supplementation rather than simply reflecting each other.
List of papers
|I: Inger Ottestad, Amund Tjellaug Løvstad, Gyrd Omholt Gjevestad, Håvard Hamarsland, Jūratė Šaltytė Benth, Lene Frost Andersen, Asta Bye, Anne Sofie Biong, Kjetil Retterstøl, Per Ole Iversen, Truls Raastad, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven. Intake of a protein-enriched milk and effects on muscle mass and strength. A 12-week randomized placebo controlled trial among community-dwelling older adults. J Nutr Health Aging (2016). The paper is not available in DUO due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-016-0856-1|
|II: Gyrd O. Gjevestad, Inger Ottestad, Anne Sofie Biong, Per Ole Iversen, Kjetil Retterstøl, Truls Raastad, Bjørn S. Skålhegg, Stine M. Ulven and Kirsten B. Holven. Consumption of proteinenriched milk has minor effects on inflammation in older adults - a 12-week double-blind randomized controlled trial. In press, Mechanisms of Ageing and Development. The paper is not available in DUO due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2017.01.011|
|III: Gyrd O. Gjevestad, Håvard Hamarsland, Truls Raastad, Inger Ottestad, Jacob J. Christensen, Kristin Eckardt, Christian A. Drevon, Anne S. Biong, Stine M. Ulven and Kirsten B. Holven. Gene expression is differentially regulated in skeletal muscle and circulating immune cells in response to an acute bout of high-load strength exercise. In press, Genes & Nutrition. The article is available in DUO: http://urn.nb.no/URN:NBN:no-57607|
|IV: Gyrd O. Gjevestad, Håvard Hamarsland, Truls Raastad, Jacob J. Christensen, Anne S. Biong, Stine M. Ulven and Kirsten B. Holven. Eleven weeks of strength training decreased inflammatory markers in older subjects independent of protein supplement type; a randomized controlled trail. Submitted manuscript. To be published. The paper is not available in DUO awaiting publishing.|