The global public health threat of antibiotic resistance has called for measures to ensure rational use of antibiotics. While new and critical antibiotics need to be conserved to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance, these medicines must also be accessible for those in need. It has been suggested that a binding international treaty similar to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs can be valuable for antibiotics. The aim of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs is to achieve a balanced policy; prevent drug abuse and sustain availability for medical purposes. Every country reports to an international control board on their annual consumption data and estimates for the coming year. All imports and exports of opioids for medical use must follow a stringent set of licensing requirements. Moreover, governments around the world have implemented additional policies and laws to prevent misuse of opioids, resulting in extra control measures on top of those required under the treaty. The aim of my thesis is to identify interventions that promote and barriers of a balanced policy for Opioids and discuss if these can be transferrable to regulation of antibiotics. This thesis used an explorative research design based on qualitative interviews and a literature review. Based on my findings, I believe that an international convention similar to the Single Convention may be too stringent for antibiotics and exacerbate the already challenging access situation in many low and middle income countries. However, an agreement for selected “critical” antibiotics may be beneficial, adapting certain elements from the Single Convention, like a classification system, special prescription forms and monitoring systems. Also, many of the national measures implemented for opioids can be applicable for the regulation of antibiotic use. Especially education and training have been essential to achieve a balanced approach where rational use of controlled substances is achieved, which is also transferrable to antibiotics.