This thesis is based on a longitudinal study and it examines the social impacts of the introduction of genetically modified (GM) soya in Santa Cecilia, an agricultural colony located in northern Argentina. Two additional objectives are to explore the implications of the agricultural changes that followed in inter-ethnic relations between the two ethnic groups found in the community, and to identify changes and continuities in the state of gender relations among one of said ethnic groups, given the changes that have occurred, and in comparison to their parents' generation. The study implements an actor-oriented approach by focusing on the experiences and perspectives of local actors. However, once patterns are identified, these are contrasted with a larger level. I draw on existing research on the effects of biotechnology in the country to support this study. Furthermore, the influence of relevant social institutions, namely family, education and the economic context are also important to answer the research questions. This research is guided by a qualitative and constructivist paradigm. Fieldwork was conducted in July 2015 and it relied on ethnographic elements, however primary data was collected through semi-structured interviews. In terms of agriculture, the findings illustrate how local farmers relate to the new technology, the strategies used to assimilate the changes, and the role of collective actors (the farmers cooperative and the municipality) in the process. Regarding the social context, it was found that the socioeconomic implications and the aspects associated with the GM crops led to changes in the state of inter-ethnic and gender relations. However, there is still predominance in the state of power relations determined by class and gender, both of which are reproduced through cultural hegemony.