Cardiac arrest among children between 0-18 years old is not uncommon and accounts for almost 25% of paediatric mortality. The survival rate is low and the outcome of the survivors is poor. There are no studies that have proven beneficial effects of therapeutic hypothermia in children with cardiac arrest. Based on successful results in adults and neonates studies, it is a discussion whether or not we should recommend therapeutic hypothermia also in children with cardiac arrest. Nevertheless, because of lack of other treatments available and presumed adverse effects of therapeutic hypothermia, there are intensive care units that perform this therapy in children with cardiac arrest. Even The European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation in Paediatric life support and American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care recommend therapeutic hypothermia after paediatric cardiac arrest. It is not a strong recommendation because these guidelines were based on a weak knowledge base and lack of studies of high quality. It is difficult to compare children with adults and even within the group of paediatric patients. The aetiology and pathophysiology of cardiac arrest differ between children and adults, and generally, the strength of studies about this topic is low because of the heterogeneity among the patients and small sample size. Can we extrapolate the positive effects of therapeutic hypothermia found in studies of adults with CA and neonates with asphyxia to treat children with CA? This review is based on searches in PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library and UpToDate. It will evaluate the effects of therapeutic hypothermia in children suffering from cardiac arrest published in the period 1950 to 2015. It will also discuss how this therapy is used in adults with cardiac arrest and neonates with asphyxia. Conclusions: Today there are no studies that have showed statistically significant effect of therapeutic hypothermia on the outcome among children with CA, nor any adverse effects. This together with lack of other curable treatment available, therapeutic hypothermia is recommended based on adults and neonates studies. There is a need to make good quality controlled studies on the topic in the future. This requires large intervention collaborative studies.