Tanzania’s natural resources are rich and diverse. Yet, the extractive industries, that work to remove these resources, are riddled with corruption, non-transparency, and limited accountability and governance. This thesis works to examine restrictions of the freedom of expression on civil society organizations and the media in Tanzania, and its impact on their organizational and individual capabilities to act as ‘watch-dogs’ in the mining, oil, and gas industries. In order to accomplish this, this thesis seeks to present both legal as well as structural expression barriers that exist within Tanzania for civil society organizations and the media based on international and regional freedom of expression laws and standards. The impact and implications of these barriers on governance in the extractive industries have been presented through a comparison of these restrictions to Goran Hyden’s good governance indicators. This thesis finds that the influence and strength of civil society organizations and the media are severely limited in Tanzania, in general, as well as within the state’s extractive industries. The status quo for civil society organizations and media capabilities prevents them from having enough ‘bite’ to adequately hold the government and non-state bodies accountable within the country. This has led, in part, to the ranking of Tanzania’s governance in the extractive industries to be considered weak internationally. In order to improve the current state of the mining, oil, and gas industries in Tanzania, policy recommendations have been provided to increase the level of good governance in the extractive industries, the capabilities of civil society organization and media, and the protection of the freedom of expression.