Over the past few decades there has been an increasing number in studies on Academic Entrepreneurship and commercialization of research outputs. Much has been written about experience in the US and Europe where Academic Entrepreneurship practices are more developed. However, Academic Entrepreneurship is a global process that takes place in many developing countries, where higher education systems are different and present other challenges. This policy-oriented study explores how Academic Entrepreneurship functions in the context of a public university technology transfer office (TTO) in Brazil. The main objective of this thesis is to investigate the conditions which allow universities to build their capacity in Academic Entrepreneurship. For this purpose, the thesis analyses the Brazilian national innovation policy documents and the university Academic Entrepreneurship regulatory framework, along with the interviews with the TTO employees. The study shows that Academic Entrepreneurship practices in a public Brazilian university anticipate legal consideration and development. It also reveals a shift from patenting and licensing towards startups creation, entrepreneurial education, and university-company interactions. The study concludes that increasing university autonomy and establishment of Academic Entrepreneurial programs will facilitate Academic Entrepreneurship in Brazilian public universities.